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Sandi Scott obtained a patent on a small electronic device and organized Scott Products, Inc., to produce and sell the device. During the first month of operations, the device was very well received on the market, so Ms. Scott looked forward to a healthy profit. For this reason, she was surprised to see a loss for the month on her income statement. This statement was prepared by her accounting service, which takes great pride in providing its clients with timely financial data. The statement follows:

Scott Products, Inc.

Income Statement

  Sales (23,000 units)                                      $              834,900   

  Variable expenses:                                                       

     Variable cost of goods sold     $              273,700                                  

     Variable selling and administrative expenses                179,400                                 453,100   

  Contribution margin                                                    381,800   

  Fixed expenses:                                                             

     Fixed manufacturing overhead                            218,400                                  

     Fixed selling and administrative expenses                      217,000                                 435,400   

  Net operating loss                                        $              ( 53,600)  

 Ms. Scott is discouraged over the loss shown for the month, particularly because she had planned to use the statement to encourage investors to purchase stock in the new company. A friend, who is a CPA, insists that the company should be using absorption costing rather than variable costing. He argues that if absorption costing had been used, the company would probably have reported a profit for the month.

Selected cost data relating to the product and to the first month of operations follow:

  Units produced                              26,000  

  Units sold                         23,000  

  Variable costs per unit:                                

     Direct materials           $              7.30  

     Direct labor    $              2.80  

     Variable manufacturing overhead       $              1.80  

     Variable selling and administrative expenses $              7.80  

1-a Compute the unit product cost under absorption costing.

1-b Redo the company’s income statement for the month using absorption costing.

1-c Reconcile the variable and absorption costing net operating income (loss) figures

3-a Prepare a contribution format income statement for the month using variable costing. 

3-b Prepare an income statement for the month using absorption costing. 

3-c Reconcile the variable costing and absorption costing net operating incomes